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共通の関心または共通の本質? 他人への魅力をどのように誤解するか


米国心理学会の調査によると、共通の関心を持つ他者への魅力は、より深い共通の本質への信念に基づいている可能性があります。 この心理的本質主義は、最小限の共有属性に基づいて他人についての不当な仮定につながる可能性があると、筆頭著者のチャールズ・チューは警告しています。

一部の人々は、最小限の類似点で他の人に惹かれることがあります. 不当な仮定に注意してください、と研究者は警告しています。


筆頭著者で、ボストン大学クエストロム ビジネス スクールの助教授である Charles Chu 博士は、次のように述べています。 「具体的に言えば、私たちは、政治的な問題について私たちに同意する人、私たちの音楽の好みを共有する人、または単純に私たちと同じことを笑う人が好きです. 、本質的に、私と同じように、彼らは私の世界観を共有しています。」

この思考プロセスは、自己と個人のアイデンティティに関する人々の考えに特に適用される一種の心理的本質主義によって推進されており、人々は動物などの生物学的カテゴリーから多くのものを「本質化」していると付け加えています。[{” attribute=””>species to social groups such as race and gender—and do so in virtually all human cultures. 

“To essentialize something is to define it by a set of deeply rooted and unchanging properties, or an essence,” said Chu. “For example, the category of ‘wolf’ is defined by a wolf essence, residing in all wolves, from which stems attributes such as their pointy noses, sharp teeth, and fluffy tails as well as their pack nature and aggressiveness. It is unchanging in that a wolf raised by sheep is still a wolf and will eventually develop wolf-like attributes.”

Recently, researchers have begun to focus on the category of the self and have found that just as we essentialize other categories, we essentialize the self, according to Chu.

“To essentialize me is to define who I am by a set of entrenched and unchanging properties, and we all, especially in Western societies, do this to some extent. A self-essentialist then would believe that what others can see about us and the way we behave are caused by such an unchanging essence,” he said.

To better understand how self-essentialism drives attraction between individuals, researchers conducted a series of four experiments. The research was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

In one experiment, 954 participants were asked their position on one of five randomly assigned social issues (abortion, capital punishment, gun ownership, animal testing, or physician-assisted suicide). Half the participants then read about another individual who agreed with their position, while the other half read about an individual who disagreed with their position. All participants then completed a questionnaire on how much they believed they shared a general view of the world with the fictitious individual, their level of interpersonal attraction to that person and their overall beliefs in self-essentialism.

Researchers found that participants who scored high on self-essentialism were more likely to express an attraction to the fictitious individual who agreed with their position and to report a shared general perception of reality with that individual.

A similar experiment involving 464 participants found the same results for a shared attribute as simple as the participants’ propensity to overestimate or underestimate a number of colored dots on a series of computer slides. In other words, the belief in an essential self-led people to assume that just a single dimension of similarity was indicative of seeing the entire world in the same way, which led to more attraction.

In another experiment, 423 participants were shown eight pairs of paintings and asked which of each pair they preferred. Based on their responses, participants were identified as either a fan of the Swiss-German artist Paul Klee or the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky. Half of each fan group was then told that artistic preference was part of their essence; the other half was told it had no connection. All were then exposed to two hypothetical individuals, one of whom had the same artistic preference and one who differed. Participants who were told that artistic preference was connected to their essence were significantly more likely to express an attraction to a hypothetical person with the same artistic preferences than those who were told artistic preference had nothing to do with their essence.

A final experiment categorized 449 participants as fans of one of the two artists and then presented them with information about whether using one’s own essence was useful or not in perceiving other people. This time, one-third of the participants were told that essentialist thinking could lead to inaccurate impressions of others, one-third were told that essentialist thinking could lead to accurate impressions of others and the final third were given no information.

As expected, researchers found participants who were told that essentialist thinking could lead to accurate impressions of others were more likely to report attraction to and shared reality with hypothetical individuals with similar art preferences.

Chu said he was most surprised to find that something as minimal as a shared preference for an artist would lead people to perceive that another individual would see the world the same way as they do. Self-essentialist thinking, though, could be a mixed blessing, he warned.

“I think any time when we’re making quick judgments or first impressions with very little information, we are likely to be affected by self-essentialist reasoning,” said Chu. “People are so much more complex than we often give them credit for, and we should be wary of the unwarranted assumptions we make based on this type of thinking.”

Reference: “Self-Essentialist Reasoning Underlies the Similarity-Attraction Effect” by Charles Chu and Brian S. Lowery, 13 April 2023, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000425

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